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What is Decentralized Web?

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Decentralized web, also referred to as Web 3.0 is a next generation internet built around the increasing common blockchain technology. The new web will be a peer to peer network where each of the users will own their data, storage and computing resources will be provided by end users in distributed networks, data will be portable, apps will run locally in user devices, and the computing platforms will be autonomous and decentralized. Several new technologies are moving us to the era of the next generation internet which include the rapid development and utilization of the blockchain technology, the Internet of Things, datafication and rapid growth of advanced analytics. 


What of Web 1.0 and 2.0?

Web 1.0 was the first-generation World Wide Web created in the 1990s based on HTTP technology. The technology worked by linking documents from different computers and making it possible to access the documents on the internet. The documents were displaced by the use of HTML language and the documents viewed through a browser. The goals of Web 1.0 were to enable easy exchange of information that is why the name ‘information superhighway’ was coined. Unfortunately, at the time, there were just a few content creators. Majority of the people were consuming the content. The content was strict, and there was no interactivity. 

Web 2.0 improved the passive content viewing in Web 1.0 by allowing internet users to interact, become content creators and collaborate in making information available on the internet. This development allowed people to read and write on the internet at the same time. This technology got synonymous with social media and digital marketing platforms, video sharing, blogging, YouTube, Facebook, and eBay among other platforms. The development of the server-side PHP scripting technology made it easier for web designers to create applications that allowed the users to write information to a set database and the information update automatically when the users refreshed their pages. 

What are the shortcomings of these two technologies? 

Both Web 1.0 and 2.0 are built on centralized internet n their current form. While the internet is not 100 percent centralized because data is stored all over the place, most physical servers are associated or operated by known companies. These servers are responsible for everything including social media, email and running individual web pages. This means that companies running the servers have control of what everyone can view on the internet. Centralization opens us to several vulnerabilities in the following ways: 

• Servers can experience a downtime 

Servers can go down due to several issues. They can be targeted by bad actors and malicious internet users and wreak havoc in most infrastructures of the economy, killing jobs reliant on digital advertising, and leading to massive losses to individuals and corporations. 

• The problem of hacking is increasing by the day 

The risk of hacking is real. Personal data and other information are getting leaked into unauthorized hands and creating losses, identity theft, and other ills in the internet. 

• Companies can censor or throttle data 

There has been an uproar over the loss of data neutrality in the last few years. Most large internet providers are not treating al the data the same. They determine what get into end user’s computers and charge more for more information. 

• Companies collect and monetize user data 

Most companies will make you sign long entry forms when creating your account. Unfortunately, most of the data ends up being sold to advertisers for digital advertising. A more recent case was that of Facebook where the social media giant was found to be collecting personal data illegally. 

Web 3.0 solves these problems 

Blockchain technology seems to be making strides across different sectors of the economy, including the internet and financial transactions. With Bitcoin being the first use case, the technology has enabled P2P transactions without the use of middlemen. This technology will help deal with the significant shortcomings of web 1.0 and 2.0 in the following ways. 

It is redesigning data structures 

In the early days' data used to be stored locally. If you wanted to share information, you would have to load it in a floppy disc and give to the user who needed it. The server then came into the picture where data was stored in one unit and shared with devices around the world. Unfortunately, centralized data structure has its limitations. In a decentralized data structure, there will be several points or nodes where data can be accessed. Eventually, the data will be distributed in a way that there will be no nodes where devices will connect to get data, but they will share data in a peer environment. 


Datafication is the ability to capture data in as many aspects of our lives as possible especially those aspects which could not be quantified earlier. The process ends up with big data. These are vast amounts of data which is unstructured. Advanced data analytic technologies are then used to mine this data and give insight into various aspects of the world around the user. 

This data is of great importance to the blockchain technology. First, a lot of personal data will be collected. Second, there will be a lot of value exchanged that has not been available in the past. Moreover, different players will be responsible for the given data. Third, the use of analytics will assist in discovering correlations and patterns within blocks of data. This will bring into light new ways of verifying data that is fed into the blockchain without working with centralized authorities to enhance data validation. 

Things will get much smarter as machine learning, and advanced forms of cognitive computing will become available to nearly all applications. Therefore, most applications will be adaptive to the needs of the users, the internet will be responsive, and the information that users receive will be personalized as per their requirements and characteristics. 

The internet of things 

A combination of the Internet of things with Web 3.0 will allow seamless completion of processes across various systems. The open nature of systems will make it easier for machines to communicate and coordinate operations across multiple organizations, systems, and domains without the authorization delays. This will enhance interaction and coordination. Web 3.0 will make it possible to move from smart things to enhancing service processes. 

Another exciting aspect of IoT and Web 3.0 will be the “servicization” of the economy. Most people will move from ownership to access services on demand. Here is an example, instead of buying a car, you will access a car-sharing service. Digital marketing will also become easier as information will be targeted depending on user characteristics. 


There are interesting times ahead with Web 3.0. It enables greater data sharing, creation, and manipulation for enhanced benefits. Although web 1.0 and 2,.0 will not completely die out., they will be relegated to specific use cases. Most of the internet will run on blockchain technology.


How Amazon Is Taking Over Other Ad Platforms

Published in Blog

Amazon has created their own ad platform that changed the way digital marketing and digital advertising works.

Someone who is new to the game might think that Google AdWords is the only way to go, and they night have thought that Facebook would help them get ahead. However, they have new options in what Amazon is doing, and there is a look at why Amazon is becoming the best place for people to go who want better digital options. Online companies are often searching for cheaper and easier ways to manage marketing, and they should consider Amazon if they think they need new places to advertise.

Amazon Has Surpassed Microsoft

Amazon has already surpassed Microsoft in terms of advertising. The digital marketing world has been rife with Microsoft ads, but Microsoft has not improved their system as much as the people at Amazon have. Amazon is coming out with new ways for people to advertise, and they have improved their platform to make it as user-friendly as possible. There are several different ways for people to use Amazon because they have affiliate programs, PPC ads, and ads that run on search engines along with shopping results.

Amazon Is Closing In Facebook And Google

Amazon is getting much closer to Facebook and Google for their overall marketing programs, and that tight gap has caused both Facebook and Google to make changes to their own platforms. There is no way to know if Amazon could overtake both companies, but Amazon is clearly the third viable option in a market where people want to have as many choices as they can get for digital advertising. The company wants to have something that works just as well as Google and Facebook, and they might overcome both companies if they continue to improve at this rate.

Amazon Is A Serious Threat To Facebook And Google?

Amazon is a serious threat to both Google and Facebook, but the simple fact si that all three of these companies do completely different things. Facebook is a social network, and Google is a search engine. Amazon is an online market, and each company will probably have something to offer the public that will be useful. People who are trying to sell their products are much more likely to use Amazon because they can link right to the Amazon page. They will get more favorable affiliate ads, and they might get better advertising on shopping results through search engines. This is a very serious thing for people to consider if they are looking for a better way to advertise.

Affiliate Ads

The affiliate ads that are created through Amazon are helpful because they go right to the Amazon page that people have created. The affiliate ads pay the people who post them, and the rates will likely be more favorable because there is no middleman. Amazon is doing all the work, and that makes the affiliate ad pay off more for both parties.

Amazon's Interface

Amazon might well create the best interface for their advertising because they have done such a good job with apps in the past. Amazon could surpass both Facebook and Google because their apps are meant for searching and social media. Amazon can focus on the ads that people need to create, and that means that the user who only has so much time in their day can invest a little bit of time in ads instead of being frustrated for half the day.

Amazon's Reach

Amazon has a reach greater than both google and Facebook because almost everyone uses Amazon in some way. They have a way of attaching their ads to news articles in the Washington Post, and they have a network or entertainment that will accept their ads. Amazon is uniquely positioned for this, and that is why their ads are catching up to the elite.


Amazon ads could be the next big thing for most companies, and they will help small companies more than any other. People who have very little time to use an advertising program will find Amazon to be simpler, and they can get ads just as fast as they would with Facebook and Google.


Apples iOS 12 Speeds Up Olders iPhones

Published in Blog

Apple's new iOS 12 update actually improves performance of old iPhones better than ever. No more losing performance with new software update. 


Apple users are about to get a vast upgrade when it comes to the processing power of older model phones. We're all probably thinking the same thing-Apple is trying to push yet another update on us. If you've been a long-time fan of Apple, you may have had some bad experiences with iOS updates in the past. Considering how buggy the iOS 11 update made some iPhones, no one can really blame you. New Apple updates aren't exactly something that works for every iPhone user. The good news is that the emergence of iOS 12 is a vast improvement from what we've seen in the past. Software Developers at Apple report that the performance of iPhones as old as the 2013 iPhone 5's will increase exceptionally. Reviewers at Engadget approximate that this new update could sustain even older models for up to a year.

Let's take a second to review the perks that Software Developers and average users alike get to experience, thanks to this new update. 

For one thing, users that installed the new update on their old iOS devices experienced a drastic speed increase. According to a recent 2018 study conducted by Stan Schroeder, 41% of iPhone users reported a dramatic speed increase with the newest iOS update. Schroeder himself, a professional IT Journalist, reports that the update has made his iPad Mini 2 run like new. This is not the only device compatible with the new iOS 12-The new update is compatible with over 20 different devices, which is something that could not be said of the previous iOS updates. A recent article by Jacob Siegal denotes some of the performance enhancements listed on the update. The speed increase of things like keyboard display increased to 50%, while apps are able to launch two times faster, which is great news for people in Mobile app development. With an update that can boast over 81% functionality on active iOS devices over a five-year span, it's no wonder that current Apple users are impressed with the recent performance increase. 

Everyday users can find great benefits from the update as well, such as group Facetime calls and custom Animoji. In a recent Beta testing detailed in this article from The Sun, iPhone users stated that the new update made even older gen models such as the iPhone 5 and 6 run like new. The reason this new update functions so well is in the way Apple's processors work. The ramp-up time for your processor is much shorter than it used to be, thanks to this new update. This is great news for any user who doesn't have the type of budget to afford newer models like the iPhone XS Max, or the iPhone XR. You can actually save money by utilizing this update to restore your older device. 

A common concern for many new buyers in the tech industry is that many Apple products require the addition of too many extra accouterments.

With the amount of extra equipment that some newer models of iPhone tend to need, from wireless headphones to extra adapters for charging, there became a large question of whether the updates we saw to the hardware and software of Apple devices was necessary. It becomes evident that Apple heard this from their audience, which is why this update has created such a drastic shift from the typical pattern of past iOS updates. The new update places an emphasis on restoring older devices and extending their shelf life. There are other features present in the update that promote healthier smartphone usage. Conservation seems to be the name of the game with features like Bedtime Mode, which is designed to reduce the brightness of your screen, immediately silence your incoming calls, and improve your sleeping experience. Screen Time is another feature that lets the user control their app usage, whether you do that to decrease the amount of time you spend on certain apps or utilize it to control what your children can and cannot access on your phone. iPhones with this update will also offer Linked Screen Time as part of their Family Sharing feature, making it more user-friendly for parents. The new format for your notifications is a lot simpler in this update, so your screen won't be flooded with a barrage of notifications from the same app. iOS 12 has presented itself with more accessible features that make phone navigation a simpler, more enjoyable experience for its users. 

While the theme of iOS 12 is centered on conservation and improved performance, the typical sleek, minimalist design we expect from an Apple update is still present.

The format of iOS 12 pulls no punches aesthetically. Users will notice a smoother, more seamless transition when they do things as simple as swiping through apps, navigating messages, or utilizing BedTime. The Books and News apps feature a new design on both smartphones and tablets. You may also notice simple design changes, like the clock on tablets being moved to the left. The changes in design will be evident for older iPhone and tablet users alike. Design features like this alone can give older devices a fresh look and make them feel like new. 

Although this update is still in its beginning stages, users seem to be experiencing little to no problems navigating the beta version. A number of users report that they have been unable to find bugs on their end, which is something unheard of in updates past. Ed Hardy reports that although the update is still in beta, the team at Cult of Mac have experienced no issues with speed, processing, or stability.

This new update is unlike any before.

When we invest in new technology, we have a certain level of expectation when it comes to the durability of our gadgets. We want to pay for tech that gives us more of a return on our investment, and this new update is doing that by re-vamping older iPhone models. Apple is a company that remains dedicated to giving its users the longest term usage with their devices. We've always been able to enjoy products for years under the Apple name, and this newest update is no exception. iOS 12 ensures that its new and old phones still demonstrate an exceptional amount of functionality and design even five years down the line. Given the recent reviews from iOS users, this new update promises to do more for older iPhones in terms of speed, processing power, and design.



Happy 20th Birthday Google

Published in Blog

Google will no longer be a teenager as of September 27th, 2018. Numerous websites have incorrectly reported that Google already turned 20, because in years past Google has celebrated their birthday on September 7th. The truth of the matter is that Google will offically turn 20 on September 27th, the day Google officially celebrates their birthday.

While we are absolutely convinced that the most important years for Google are still ahead, this is a great time to examine the history of Google as it is very close to becoming the second $1 trillion valued company. Apple became the first $1 trillion publicaly traded company on August 2nd. 

Google Started as a Ph.D. Project

When Larry Page first visited Stanford as a prospective student his tour guide was the first-year student Sergey Brin. The two initially argued about everything. In fact, it was not until Larry Page's academic advisor suggested that he start collecting links from the internet that he created the first search engine of sorts as a Ph. D. project. Larry envisioned that students needed a way to cite sources from web pages, so he and Brin finally joined forces to create PageRank. Yet, the two still had problems working together because Larry was much more studious than Brin who was constantly socializing. Since the biggest data storage device at the time was 4 GB, the duo took 10 of them and assembled them in a rack built of Legos to provide the storage they needed for PageRank and BackRub.

Stanford Demands PageRank and BackRub be Moved

The earliest version of the search engine called BackRub launched in August 1996 on Stanford's computers, but it proved so useful that it overpowered their system frequently. Therefore, the university demanded that the duo move their system off their computer system.

BackRub Renamed Google

The two remained committed to their project, but they decided that BackRub was not an appropriate name, so they remained the company Google after the mathematical term googol. After starting to beg professors for money to get their project going, the duo moved their fledgling company to Susan Wojcicki garage apartment. While Susan says that she wishes that she foresaw the future of Google when she let them move into her garage apartment with their one employee, she says that the truth is that she had a mortgage to pay on her new home, and she needed the money.

Andy Bechtolsheim Invests in Google

Finally, professors at Stanford introduced the two students to Andy Bechtolsheim who invested in their company. Bechtolsheim says that he actually invested in the company so that he could solve his own problem because, in 1998, he found it very difficult to find information on the internet. He says that the check that he gave the company was the first money that Google ever received and the best business decision of his life. Google was incorporated on September 4, 1998.

Tried to Sell to AltaVista

Larry and Brin, however, were not convinced that they wanted to give up their studies at Stanford to pursue creating the company. In fact, they tried to sell their PageRank software that was used to send people to other websites for information to AltaVista for $1 million. AltaVista turned the duo down because they thought that their program which tried to provide the right answers without the user leaving their site was the correct answer.

Eric Schmidt Hired to Provide Adult Supervision

While Page and Brin were young and wanted to play, they realized that the company needed an experienced leader or as they called it "adult supervision." Therefore, they hired Eric Schmidt who first joined the board before becoming the company's CEO in March 2001 when the company was not yet four years old. When Schmidt arrived for his first day on the job, he found that he had an officemate who had moved out of the company's six-person engineering office because it was too crowded. After a heated conversation with the head of sales, Schmidt hung up the phone and his officemate Amit Singhal said he could tell Schmidt why the sales figures were not what Schmidt was expecting. Amit who had a strong background in data analytics explained the current problem to Schmidt but more importantly set into motion the company's dependence on data analytics to prove its points. In 2011, when Schmidt became the executive chairman and Paige took over day-to-day operations, Schmidt announced the move by tweeting "adult supervision no longer needed."

Yahoo's Failed Attempt to Buy Google

It seems ironic that Yahoo tried to buy Google in 2002 for $3 billion. The company refused to sell because they thought they should get at least $5 billion for the entity. While Yahoo sold to Verizon for just $4.3 billion, Google is valued at $120.9 billion in 2018.

News Agitator Service Started

In 2002, Google started one of the first news agitator services. Despite the fact that Bob Woodward accused the service of killing newspapers, the Wall Street Journal's publisher Les Hinton calling Google News a digital vampire, and Rupert Murdoch saying that Google was the biggest pirate of all time, by the time that the service was 10 years old, it regularly published information from 50,000 news sources across 72 editions and in 30 languages. For their part, Google maintains still today that they have a well-defined opt-out policy for publishers and are designed to bring people only the headlines encouraging those who want more details to click through to the publisher's site.

Launching of Gmail

No date is more important in the company's history than April 1, 2004, because that is when Google launched Gmail. While there were other email servers available like HotMail and Yahoo Mail, the company quickly caught the viewer's attention by offering 1 GB of free storage. In fact, it seemed so improbable that many thought that the company was trying to capitalize on April Fool's Day to get attention for its new program.

The program, however, was almost never invented, except that Paul Buchheit who was the company's 23rd employee was determined that he would have a working sample before his first day at the company was done for his own private use. He used the software from Google Groups to accomplish his task. When he showed other engineers his work, they thought it was a brilliant idea and wanted it for their own emails. Soon, the company realized that they had a commercially viable product because of the email's programs vastly improved ability to search emails.

Jeff Bezos Investment in Google

The fledgling company that was soon approaching a decade old still had money problems, however, as they were dependent on angel investors to help them meet their goals. One of those investors was Jeff Bezos who had founded Amazon just four years before investing in Google. One of the first things that Bezos did after founding Amazon was to buy Junglee, an Indian delivery service, that was operated by Ram Shriram who had privately been advising Google's co-founders on some business matters. Ram arranged a meeting with Bezos and he gave the duo $250,000. After Google finally went public on August 19, 2004, Bezos invested another $750,000. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that Bezos would have become a millionaire even if he had never started Amazon. It is unclear, however, what Bezos did with his shares of the company.

Google AdWords Invented

Google received more than $25 million from angel investors in 1999. One of the reasons that investors were so willing to cut checks to Google was they saw an opportunity to make money through the beginning of Google's digital marketing program. The original AdWords program was beta tested in 2004 with just 350 advertisers. While AdWords would bring badly needed money into the company, it would not be the first attempt by Google to sell advertising. Their first attempt was launched earlier in 2004, and it was called Premium Sponsorships. These banner-style ads that were sold by a human salesforce on a cost-per-impression basis appeared at the top of search result pages while Google AdWord ads appeared down the right-hand side. The first Google AdWords office was opened in Tokyo, Japan, and its very first customer was eBay Australia. While Google AdWords had a wonderful run before becoming rebranded as Google Ads in June 2018.

Google Launched to Public

If you had been a smart investor, you would have bought a share of Google when it first launched on August 19, 2004. The company filed its initial public offering of 19,605,052 Class A stocks valuing them at $85. As of September 7, 2018, that stock was valued at $1,184.40. Six months after its first initial offering, the company was valued at $52 billion making it one of the largest media companies in the world by stock market value.

Google Maps Launched

In 2004, Google also purchased Where 2 Technologies owned by Lars and Jens Eilstrup Rasmussen and Keyhole technology. They immediately turned a team of 50 engineers loose on the project of developing a map that was zoomable and searchable. While the company was not the first to launch a mapping program as it was beaten by Yahoo and MapQuest, it was not until Google released satellite imagery that people put away their paper maps and began relying on the internet to get its directions.

Google Purchases YouTube

On October 9, 2004, Google purchased YouTube. While many argue that the company who paid $1.6 billion for YouTube was crazy at the time, the acquisition turned out to be a great investment. Google had already invented and failed at Google Videos. Yet, they felt they needed to get their foot in the video market. As of 2018, YouTube is valued at $160 billion according to Morgan Stanley.

Google Purchases DoubleClick

Google cemented its place in digital advertising with its purchase of DoubleClick for $3.1 billion in 2007. That amount was about 10 times what the company was valued at, but it gave Google a competitive edge in selling digital marketing over Microsoft who also wanted the company.

Google Develops the Chrome Browser

After battling that Google was still a small company who according to Eric Schmidt could not withstand the brutal browser wars, Brin hired engineers from Mozilla Firefox to develop Chrome. The company released it for Windows Explorer on September 3, 2008. In order to make the announcement, the company hired Scott McCloud to create a 40-page comic book about the product. In the original terms of service, Google was granted permission to use all content published using a Chrome browser. After this was pointed out by CNET, the company changed their terms of service. While the company enjoyed almost 1 percent market penetration with the browser immediately, that penetration quickly fell to 0.69 percent. Today, however, the company enjoys about a 62 percent worldwide penetration while Mozilla Firefox only has about 16 percent and Internet Explorer only about 12 percent.

Google Purchases Android

Google had quietly purchased Android in 2005 for $50 million. Some declare it the best purchase that the company ever made. It spent the next three years developing the mobile phone application before finally releasing it in 2008 on the T-Mobile G1 phone called the HTC Dream in many parts of the world.

Google's Second Decade

The first ten years were very busy for Google, but the next 10 years were almost as productive. Highlights from these 10 years include:
     ~Nexus One release on January 5, 2010
     ~Google initiated service to China in 2000. After being severely censored in January 2006 after launching its page in simplified Chinese. After first redirecting its users to their site in Hong Kong, Google gave up providing its services to China in 2010. Except for Android phone services, Google still looks for ways to operate in the country without censorship.
    ~After battling for eight years through multiple courts, Oracle seems to have beaten Google unless the United States Supreme Court intervenes as Oracle claims that their IP was violated when Google reproduced it inside their Android operating system.
   ~Google produced their first self-driving cars in 2010 before eventually spinning the development off into its own company called Waymo.
   ~After developing the Chrome operating system, Google went on to release the first Chromebook on June 15, 2011.
   ~After developing Orkut, Google Friend Connect and Google Buzz, the company released Google+ in June 2011 to try to compete in social networking.
   ~Google acquired Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion on August 15, 2011. They sold it for $2.3 billion on January 29, 2014. Yet, Google’s head of mergers and acquisitions Don Harrison called the deal a success because of the patents that Google obtained through the purchase.
   ~Sergey Brin took to skydiving to introduce Google Glass. While the product was banned from many venues, it is credited with starting the computer wearable revolution.
   ~Google introduced Google Reader, their RSS/Atom feed aggregator, on October 7, 2005. After declining use, Google discontinued the product on July 1, 2013.
   ~After Ray Kurzweil was hired by Google in 2012, the company purchased DeepMind in 2014. This and other acquisitions prove that Google thinks the future is in artificial intelligence.
   ~Larry Page restructured Google as Alphabet Inc. in 2015 giving room for various elements of the former company to compete against themselves. The umbrella organization is a collection of many different companies with a revenue in 2017 of $110.86 billion and over 89,000 employees.
   ~Google launched Google Assistant on May 18, 2016. In the fourth quarter of 2017, the company sold more than 7.6 million units, but it was still behind top competitors like Amazon's Alexa.

It is anyone's guess what the future holds for Google. We can hardly wait to see the developments that will occur before it turns 30 in 2028. With the revenue from its digital advertising through Google Ads and YouTube along with other sources of income, this company may surpass anyone's wildest expectations.

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